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THE STAPLE OF AMERICAN LIFE IS A LIE DETECTOR & HOW IT WORKS HERE

Robert De Niro uses a polygraph on Ben Stiller in Meet The Parents.20x349

The lie detector is a staple of American television – and indeed American law enforcement.

We’ve all seen people wired up to lie detectors that trace out squiggly patterns while an operator looks on with a serious expression and hunts for telltale signs of deception. But how do lie detectors work?

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Well, if we really want to get to the truth we need to watch our language. Asking how lie detectors – polygraphs, to give them their technical name – work makes the assumption that they do work. But first let’s consider how they operate. A polygraph combines a number of sensitive instruments that would otherwise only turn up in a medical setting. There is some variation, but a typical polygraph is made up of five instruments. Two indicate respiratory rate by measuring the expansion and contraction of the chest and abdomen. Another measures blood pressure and pulse using a blood-pressure cuff. The final instrument measures the electrical conductivity of the skin, usually on the fingertips, which varies according to how much the subject sweats.

Homer breaks a polygraph in <em>The Simpsons</em>.Homer breaks a polygraph in The Simpsons.

When the machine was invented in the 1920s, these measurements were all recorded on a moving paper roll that the operator could examine afterwards – having marked the point at which each question was posed. Today polygraphs are digital and a laptop takes the place of the paper roll, though often the computerisation is fairly superficial and a trained operator is still essential to interpret the results.

The polygraph is designed to measure physiological changes caused by emotional reactions that accompany deceptive behaviour. The idea is roughly that it is stressful to tell a lie and this emotional stress causes physical stress that the polygraph picks up. Everyone is different, of course, so each session begins with a few neutral control questions as a kind of calibration step.

That’s the procedure. Unfortunately, it’s not very reliable.

Many polygraph operators make no claim to detect lies, only to detect deceptive behaviour, although even that somewhat milder claim is a stretch. Psychologists have yet to find consistent physiological indicators of deception: One person’s respiration might change when they’re hiding something, but another person’s might not. And it’s possible to consciously alter the physiological responses that polygraph operators look for. Taking a sedative, pricking your skin or even just moving can muddle the results.

The polygraph is not the only approach to lie detection but none of the alternatives – such as vocal stress analysis, micro-expression analysis and brain scanning – have been proven either. And there are more philosophical problems that plague any lie detection scheme, no matter how deeply it probes. It can only detect if the subject believes they are lying. If they can convince themselves, or be convinced by others, that their responses are true then they can utter a falsehood without triggering any signs of deception – and vice versa.

In this part of the world lie detectors are mostly something you see only on television. Elsewhere, though, lie detectors are a fact of life that can make or break a case or a career. Sometimes, “truth” is stranger than fiction.

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Organized criminal groups have stolen millions of dollars in heavy equipment from mines in the Australian state of Queensland during just the past twelve months according to a new report released by the Crime and Misconduct Commission.

The report by CMC notes that the theft of mining equipment has become an increasingly acute problem for the mineral-rich tropical state following the growth of its resources sector.
The Rich Pom

The report notes that criminal groups consider mining companies to be “soft targets” due to poor security measures, with evidence of efforts by criminals to infiltrate the industry in order to obtain information on access to sites.

Queensland is also a special area of focus for heavy equipment thefts due to the perception that it is easier to transport stolen equipment from the state to either overseas markets or other states in Australia.

Heavy equipment thefts rose from 132 in 2007 to 231 in 2011, representing an increase of around 75%, with major hotspots being regional centres such as Toowoomba, Dalby, Mackay and Rockhampton.


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POLICE DRUG TESTING BY TAKING YOUR FINGERPRINTS.

UNIT TO BE SOON RELEASED

It’s generally understood that driving while under the influence of many substances can greatly increase the chance of getting in an accident. As such, it’s common for police officers to use a breathalyzer to check someone’s blood alcohol content, to ensure that they aren’t impaired. Unfortunately, alcohol is one of the only substances that they can check for, and receive immediate results. But that looks to be changing soon.

A company called Intelligent Fingerprinting has just unveiled a prototype hand-held drug testing device that can provide officers with immediate results. The company hasn’t released information on exactly what substances are they are able to test for, but we do know that the process involves little more than having your fingerprint scanned by the device. We should know more when the device is put into production sometime next year.

MORE OF THE MOST BRUTAL FORMS

OF EXECUTIONS OVER CENTURIES

1. Pendulum slicer

The pendulum was an instrument in torture and death via capital punishment used by the Spanish Inquisition. Although designed to cause maximum pain before death, the pendulum was also used to induce psychological fear into the victim, thereby extracting confessions quickly. The victim was first fastened to a wooden bench with ropes so that it was impossible for him to move. Above the victim was a crescent-shaped blade which would begin swinging to and from. Gradually the bar to which the blade was attached would be lowered bringing it closer and closer to the victim’s torso. It would usually be at this point that the victim would confess. If no confession was made, the blade would continue to lower until it began cutting through the victim’s torso. Eventually, the victim would be cleaved in two.

2. Immurement

Immurement is a form of capital punishment where a person is walled up within a building and left to die from starvation or dehydration. This is distinct from being buried alive, in which the victim typically dies of asphyxiation. The folklore of many Southeastern European communities refers to immurement as the mode of death for the victim sacrificed during the completion of a construction project, such as a bridge or fortress. Many Bulgarian and Romanian folk songs describe a bride offered for such purposes, and her subsequent pleas to the builders to leave her hands and breasts free, that she might still nurse her child. Later versions of the songs revise the bride’s death; her fate to languish, entombed in the stones of the construction, is transmuted to her nonphysical shadow, and its loss yet leads to her pining away and eventual death.

3. Lapidation


Lapidation, is a form of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until the person dies. No individual among the group can be identified as the one who kills the subject. This is in contrast to the case of a judicial executioner. It is slower than other forms of execution, and hence is a form of execution by torture.

4. Back Breaking

A form of capital punishment was merely to break the back of the criminal and leave him to die of thirst. It was a Mongolian method of execution that avoided the spilling of blood on the ground.

5. Iron Maiden

An Iron Maiden is an iron cabinet constructed to kill or torture the condemned. The iron cabinet was built with sharp objects like spikes, knives or nails inside of it. An individual was placed inside standing and the doors of the cabinet were closed repeatedly forcing bleeding and punctures until death due to blood loss or lack of oxygen should lungs be punctured. This form of capital punishment was used throughout the 18th Century in England

6. Execution by Elephant

Execution by elephant was, for thousands of years, a common method of capital punishment in South and Southeast Asia, and particularly in India. Asian Elephants were used to crush, dismember, or torture captives in public executions. The animals were trained and versatile, both able to kill victims immediately or to torture them slowly over a prolonged period. Employed by royalty, the elephants were used to signify both the ruler’s absolute power and his ability to control wild animals. The sight of elephants executing captives attracted the interest of usually horrified European travellers, and was recorded in numerous contemporary journals and accounts of life in Asia. The practice was eventually suppressed by the European empires that colonised the region in the 18th and 19th centuries. While primarily confined to Asia, the practice was occasionally adopted by Western powers, such as Rome and Carthage, particularly to deal with mutinous soldiers.

7. Damnatio ad bestias

Damnatio ad bestias was a form of capital punishment in which the condemned were maimed on the circus arena or thrown to a cage with animals, usually lions. It was brought to ancient Rome around the 2nd century BC from Asia, where a similar penalty existed from at least the 6th century BC. In Rome, damnatio ad bestias was used as entertainment and was part of the inaugural games of the Flavian Amphitheatre. In the 1st–3rd centuries AD, this penalty was mainly applied to the worst criminals and early Christians (Latin: christianos ad leones, “Christians to the lions”). It was abolished in 681 AD.

8. Sawing

Sawing was a method of execution used in Europe under the Roman Empire, in the Middle East, and in parts of Asia. The condemned were hung upside-down and sawn apart vertically through the middle, starting at the groin. Since the the body was inverted, the brain received a continuous supply of blood despite severe bleeding, consciousness thereby continuing until, or after, the saw severed the major blood vessels of the abdomen. The movement of the saw caused a body to sway back and forth making the process difficult for the executioners. The Chinese overcame this problem by securing the victim in an upright position between two boards firmly fixed between stakes driven deep into the ground. Two executioners, one at each end of the saw, would saw downwards through the stabilized boards and enclosed victim.

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Crime news from around the world. Easy access to reported crimes & data.

We often have a need to access files on a plethara of criminal activities that involve not only habitual crimes of various descriptions but those of impulsive one off actions that result in a crime being committed by an individual in an unintentional or negligent way.

To collate these happenings and events one can collect them from many varied sources throughout the IT world and published media.

As there are many various aspects to criminal activities, we are in no way making any judgements as to the guilt & nor innocence of any individual nor making any legal claims in giving legal/court advice or describing policies on our own, but reporting what we have accessed from what we deem to be reliable sources.

The reported crimes are catergorized in common headings for easy recognition

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